There is a difference between arrogance and confidence. To be quite honest, looking back on 40 plus years in the working world, I wish I could have been a little more of both.
We tend to like confident people more than arrogant people. We all know arrogant people who are who are very successful. I give them credit. Usually arrogant people have to be pretty smart and quick witted to survive. According to Psychology Today these are some reasons arrogant people often succeed.
1. They express anger. Have you ever had a boss "snap" at you? It's intimidating. Intimidation is way approach to being a success.
2. Arrogant people are difficult. Rather than argue you just give them what they want.
3. Arrogant people are dominant. This helps them get more power.
4. Arrogant people think they are superior. Self confidence has many social benefits.
5. Arrogant people attack individuals instead of issues. If you try to reason with someone and they get personal it's very unpleasant. However, it can be empowering to the person you are trying to reason with.
I think the first 4 reasons can be looked at in a positive way. Number 5 can be an arrogant individuals downfall.
Source: Psychology Today